What is quicksort? Quicksort is a sorting algorithm, which uses a technique callend “divide-and-conquer”. It is one of the fastest sorting algorithms, as its' name implies.
What is the base case of the quicksort algorithm? Empty arrays and arrays with one element. On both situations, you only return the arrays, since there’s nothing to be sorted.
How does quicksort work? You choose an element from the array that will be the pivot. Then you create 2 sub-arrays: one with the numbers smaller than the pivot, and one with the ones larger than it. At each recursion, you return an array with: the array with the lesser elements, the pivot, and the array with the greater elements (on that order).
What is inductive proof? It is a way to prove that an algorithm works. Each proof has a base case and an inductive case.
What is the Big-O notation of quicksort: a) on the worst case, b) on the average case. a) O₍n²). It happens when you choose the first element as the pivot. b) O₍n log n). It happens when you choose any element that is not the first one as the pivot.
On Big-O notation, what does “c” account for? When it is relevant? With notation like O₍n₎, the “n” part in fact means “c * n”. “c” is a constant, that takes into account the amount of time an algorithm takes to run. That “c” constant is ignored when 2 algorithms have different Big-O times (because no matter its' value, it will be irrelevant). But it matters when 2 algorithms have the same Big-O time. E.g. Quicksort VS Mergesort - they are both O₍n log n₎, but in practice quicksort is faster because it hits the average case more often than the worst case.
What determines the performance of quicksort? The pivot chosen. If it is the first element, it does not matter if the array is already sorted, it will try to sort it anyway - because it does not now the array is sorted. And also, using the first element as the pivot you do not have the benefit of starting with 2 sub-arrays - so your call stack will be the largest.
What is the benefit of picking the middle element as the pivot with quicksort? Your call stack will be shorter - so, there will be less recursive calls. Then, you reach the base case sooner.
How to consistently get the best case scenario of quicksort? Always choosing a random element as the pivot.